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Study on the effect of soldering methods on the characteristics of the Ni-Cr alloy 납착 방법이 치과용 금속의 성상에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구
Chul-Hyung Kim, Young-Gyun Song, Jong-Hyuk Lee
김철형, 송영균, 이종혁

PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to compare Ni-Cr alloy property of gas-oxygen torch soldering and infrared welding using optical microscope and Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA).

MATERIALS AND METHODS. Ni-Cr alloys were casted for specimens. Specimens had 3.0 mm diameter, 30.0 mm length and were divided into two groups. Each group had 4 specimens. One group was for gas-oxygen torch soldering and the other was infrared welding. Specimens were cut with low-speed disc and soldered each other with gas-oxygen torch and infrared machine. After soldering and polishing, specimens were observed at 3 points (soldering point, 5 mm distance point, 10 mm distance point) with optical microscope and analyzed 3 points (soldering point, 5 mm distance point, 10 mm distance point with EPMA.

RESULTS. The results of this study were as follows: 1. The observation of gas-oxygen torch soldering at 10 mm distance point under the optical microscope was not founded any specific surface properties, but some crack lines were observed at 5 mm distance and soldering point. 2. There were no crack lines were founded at the observation of infrared welding at 10 mm distance and 5 mm distance points under the optical microscope. However, at the 5 mm distance, the surface was not smooth enough compared with at 10 mm distance point. Some crack lines were observed at the welding point as well. 3. In the EPMA analysis of the gas-oxygen torch soldering, the component of Ni was increased by 4.5%, Cr was increased by 7.5% than that of the Ni-Cr alloy at the 10.0 mm distance. At the 5 mm distance, the component of Ni was decreased by 6.1%, Mo was increased by 9.0% than that of the Ni-Cr alloy but Cr was equally shown at the 5.0 mm distance. Only Ni was shown at the soldering point. 4. In the EPMA analysis of the infrared welding, the component of Ni was increased by 9.1%, Cr was increased by 0.4% than that of the Ni-Cr alloy but Al was equal at the 10.0 mm distance. At the 5 mm distance, the component of Ni was increased by 4.7%, Cr was increased by 4.7% and Al was increased by 0.1% than that of the Ni-Cr alloy. At the welding point, the component of Ni was increased by 8.8%, Cr was increased by 8.2% than that of the Ni-Cr alloy.

CONCLUSION.From these results, at the 5 mm distance from the soldering point, the surface of the infrared welding was more smoother than that of the gas-oxygen torch soldering. On the EPMA analysis, the component of the specimens with infrared welding was more similar than that of the gas-oxygen torch soldering compared with the component of the Ni-Cr alloy.

* Keywords: Gas-oxygen torch soldering; infrared welding; Optical microscope; EPMA

연구 목적: 본 연구는 치과영역에서 많이 사용되는 비귀금속 합금인 니켈-크롬 합금을 산소-아세틸렌 불꽃 납착법과 적외선 용접법을 이용해 용접하고 용접부 및 그 주변을 광학 현미경과 EPMA (Electron Probe Micro Analyzer, 전자미세현미분석기)를 통해 관찰하여 용접방법이 금속의 성상(�I�L�I�L)에 미치는 영향을 조사하였다.

연구 재료 및 방법:니켈-크롬 합금을 이용하여 3.0 mm 직경, 30 mm 길이의 시편을 제작하였다. 시편은 산소-아세틸렌 불꽃 납착법, 적외선 용접법의 두 개의 그룹으로 분류하였다(n = 4). 시편을 low-speed disc로 자른 후 각각을 산소-아세틸렌 토치와 적외선 용접기를 이용해 용접하였다. 용접과 마무리 후에 시편을 광학현미경으로 용접부, 5 mm 떨어진 지점, 10 mm 떨어진 지점의 3개 부위에서 관찰하고EPMA를 이용하여 분석하였다.

결과: 광학 현미경 관찰 결과 용접부에서는 두 방법 모두 다수의 파절선이 관찰되었고, 10.0 mm 떨어진 거리에서는 두 방법 모두 시편의 표면에서 파절선이 발견되지 않았으나 5.0 mm 떨어진 거리에서는 적외선 용접법에서는 시편의 표면이 다소 거칠기는 했으나 파절선은 발견되지 않았고 산소-아세틸렌 불꽃 납착 표면에서는 다수의 파절선이 관찰되었다. EPMA분석에서 적외선 용접법에 의한 방법에서는 용접부위, 5.0 mm 떨어진 부위, 10.0 mm 떨어진 부위 모두에서 시편 금속의 구성성분 비율이 제조사의 구성성분 비율과 10.0%이내의 오차를 나타내었고, 산소-아세틸렌 불꽃 납착법에서는 5.0, 10.0 mm에서는 시편금속의 구성성분이 10.0%이내의 오차를 나타내었으나, 납착 부위에서는 Ni만이 검출되어 적외선 용접법과는 차이를 나타내었다. 이와 같은 분석결과를 살펴 볼 때 적외선 용접을 시행한 시편의 구성 성분이 모금속의 성분과 유사한 것을 알 수 있었다.

결론: 이상의 결과로 산소-아세틸렌 불꽃 납착법보다 적외선 용접법을 이용할 때, 금속의 결함 및 성분의 변화가 적어서 좀 더 우수한 금속 보철물의 제작이 가능할 것으로 사료된다.

* 주요단어: 광학현미경 산소-아세틸렌 불꽃 납착법 적외선 용접법 EPMA