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A study on surface roughness of metals according to finishing and polishing procedures - an atomic force microscope analysis 연마방법에 따른 금속의 활택도에 관한 연구 - Atomic Force Microscope를 이용한 -
Won-Kyu Park, Yi-Hyung Woo, Boo-Byung Choi, Sung-Bok Lee
박원규, 우이형, 최부병, 이성복

The surface of metals should be as smooth as possible for optimum comfort, oral hygiene, low
plaque retention, and resistance to corrosion.
In this study, five specimens of each precious metal(type III gold alloy, ceramic gold alloy, and
Ag-Pd alloy) were divided into five groups according to finishing and polishing procedures: group
1(sandblaster),  group  2(group  1+stone),  group  3(group  2+brown  rubber),  group  4(group
3+green rubber), and group 5(group 4+rouge). Six specimens of each non-precious metal(Co-
Cr alloy, Ni-Cr alloy, and Co-Cr-Ti alloy) were divided into six groups: group 1(sandblaster), group
2(group 1+hard stone), group 3(group 2+electrolytic polisher), group 4(group 3+brown hard rub-
ber point), group 5(group 4+green hard rubber point), and group 6(group 5+rouge). Considering
factors affecting the rate of abrasion, the same dentist applied each finishing and polishing pro-
cedure. In addition, the surface roughness of enamel, resin, and porcelain was evaluated
The effect of finishing and polishing procedures on surface roughness of precious and non-pre-
cious metals,  enamel,  resin,  and  porcelain was  evaluated  by means  of Atomic Force
Microscope(AutoProbe  CP,  Park  Scientific  Instruments, U.S.A.)  that  can  image  the  three
dimensional surface profile and measure average surface roughness values of each sample at the
same time.  
The obtained results were as follows:
1. According  to  finishing  and  polishing  procedures,  the  surface  roughness  of  type  III  gold
alloy, ceramic gold alloy, and Ag-Pd alloy was decreased in the order of group 1, 2, 3, 4, and
5 (P<0.01).  
2. According to finishing and polishing procedures, the surface roughness of Co-Cr alloy, Ni-Cr
alloy,  and Co-Cr-Ti  alloy was  decreased  in  the  order  of  group  1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  and  6
(P<0.01).
3. There was not  statistically  significant  difference  in  the  surface  roughness  among  three
metals of precious metals in group 1 but was significant difference in group 2, 3, 4, and 5
(P<0.05).
4. There was not  statistically  significant  difference  in  the  surface  roughness  among  three
metals of non-precious metals in all groups.
5. When the surface roughness of the smoothest surface of each metal, enamel, porcelain,
and  resin was  compared,  porcelain was  the  smoothest  and  the  surface  roughness was
decreased  in  the  order  of Ni-Cr  alloy, Co-Cr  alloy, Co-Cr-Ti  alloy,  resin, Ag-Pd  alloy,
ceramic gold alloy, type III gold alloy, and enamel (P<0.01).
The results of this study indicate that the finishing and polishing procedures should be carried
out in a logical, systematic sequence of steps and the harder non-precious metals may be less resis-
tance to abrasion than are the softer precious metals.

* Keywords: Surface roughness, Atomic force microsceope, Finishing and polishing procedures

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